Lee Smolin has been a professor at Yale, Syracuse and Penn State Universities and held postdoctoral positions at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton; the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara; and the Enrico Fermi Institute, the University of Chicago. He recently won, with the University of Edinburgh’s Marina Cortês, the prestigious Buchalter Cosmology Prize for groundbreaking work on the concepts of causality and time. He is currently on faculty with the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. His books include The Trouble with Physics, Time Reborn and, co-authored with Roberto Mangabeira Unger, The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: A Proposal in Natural Philosophy.